Russia Travel Guide – Everything You Need to Know

Tourism in Russia presents a captivating journey through a land of contrasts, where historic grandeur meets modern dynamism. From the majestic landscapes of the vast Siberian wilderness to the architectural splendors of Moscow and the cultural treasures of St. Petersburg, Russia offers a diverse array of experiences for every traveler. Discover its rich history, immerse yourself in artistic and literary heritage, and be captivated by its unique traditions. Whether exploring iconic landmarks or venturing off the beaten path, Russia’s allure lies in its ability to enchant and surprise at every turn.

What’s the Best Time to Visit? 📅

The best time to visit Russia as a tourist depends on the region you plan to explore and the type of experience you’re seeking. Russia is vast and spans multiple climate zones, so the ideal time can vary. Here are some recommendations for different seasons:

  1. Summer (June to August):
    • This is the most popular time to visit Russia, especially for cities like Moscow and St. Petersburg.
    • The weather is generally mild and pleasant, with longer daylight hours allowing for more sightseeing.
    • Festivals, cultural events, and outdoor activities are abundant during this time.
  2. Late Spring and Early Autumn (May and September):
    • Spring and autumn offer milder weather and fewer crowds compared to the peak summer months.
    • These seasons are great for exploring cities, enjoying cultural attractions, and experiencing the Trans-Siberian Railway.
  3. Winter (December to February):
    • Winter is ideal for travelers interested in experiencing Russia’s snowy landscapes and winter sports.
    • Cities like Moscow and St. Petersburg are adorned with festive decorations during the holiday season.
    • However, winters can be harsh and extremely cold, especially in Siberia.
  4. Trans-Siberian Railway (May to September):
    • If you’re planning to embark on the Trans-Siberian Railway journey, the warmer months are recommended to enjoy the scenery along the way.
  5. Northern Lights (September to April):
    • If you’re interested in witnessing the Northern Lights, the northern regions of Russia, like Murmansk and Arkhangelsk, are best visited during the colder months.

It’s important to consider your specific interests and the regions you plan to visit when deciding on the best time to travel to Russia. Keep in mind that the weather can be quite extreme in some parts of the country, so packing appropriate clothing is essential regardless of the season.

What’s the Best Way to Get Around? 🚌

Getting around Russia as a tourist involves a variety of transportation options due to the country’s vast size and diverse landscapes. Here are some of the best ways to travel within Russia:

  1. Domestic Flights:
    • For covering long distances quickly, especially between major cities and across regions, domestic flights are a convenient option.
  2. Trans-Siberian Railway:
    • Embarking on the iconic Trans-Siberian Railway journey offers a unique way to experience the vastness of Russia, connecting Moscow to Vladivostok or other destinations like Beijing.
  3. Long-Distance Trains:
    • Aside from the Trans-Siberian Railway, Russia has an extensive rail network connecting major cities and regions. Overnight sleeper trains are common for longer journeys.
  4. Metro and Public Transportation:
    • Moscow and St. Petersburg have efficient metro systems that are not only convenient but also showcase impressive architecture and design.
  5. Taxis and Ride-Sharing Services:
    • Taxis and ride-sharing services like Yandex.Taxi are widely available in cities, offering a convenient way to navigate urban areas.
  6. Buses and Minibuses:
    • Buses and minibuses (marshrutkas) are commonly used for short-distance travel within cities and towns.
  7. Ferries and Boats:
    • In cities with waterways, such as St. Petersburg, taking ferries or boats can offer a scenic and unique perspective.
  8. Car Rentals and Self-Driving:
    • Renting a car and self-driving is an option for more remote areas or regions with less developed transportation infrastructure.
  9. Walking and Cycling:
    • Exploring city centers on foot or by cycling can be a great way to discover local attractions and get a feel for the local culture.
  10. Guided Tours:
    • Joining guided tours or excursions can be helpful for navigating attractions and historical sites, especially if you’re not familiar with the language.

Given the vastness of Russia, travel times between cities and regions can be considerable. It’s advisable to plan your itinerary in advance, considering the distances and transportation options available. In major cities, public transportation is often efficient and cost-effective, while in more remote areas, it may be necessary to rely on domestic flights or longer train journeys.

What’s the Official Language?

The official language of Russia is Russian. Here are some useful Russian words and phrases for tourists:

  1. Hello – Привет (Privet)
  2. Thank you – Спасибо (Spasibo)
  3. Yes – Да (Da)
  4. No – Нет (Net)
  5. Please – Пожалуйста (Pozhaluysta)
  6. Excuse me – Извините (Izvinite)
  7. Goodbye – До свидания (Do svidaniya)
  8. How much is this? – Сколько это стоит? (Skol’ko eto stoit?)
  9. Where is…? – Где находится…? (Gde nakhoditsya…?)
  10. Restroom – Туалет (Tualet)
  11. Water – Вода (Voda)
  12. Food – Еда (Yeda)
  13. Help – Помощь (Pomoshch’)
  14. I don’t understand – Я не понимаю (Ya ne ponimayu)
  15. I’m sorry – Простите (Prostite)
  16. Can you speak English? – Вы говорите по-английски? (Vy govorite po-angliyski?)

While English is spoken in some tourist areas and by younger people, having a few basic Russian phrases can enhance your interactions and show appreciation for the local culture. Many Russians appreciate efforts by tourists to communicate in their language.

Where to Stay? 🏨

Russia offers a wide range of accommodation options for tourists, from luxurious hotels to budget-friendly hostels. The best place to stay depends on the cities or regions you plan to visit and your preferences. Here are some popular options:

  1. Luxury Hotels:
    • Major cities like Moscow and St. Petersburg offer a variety of upscale hotels with luxurious amenities and central locations.
  2. Boutique Hotels:
    • Boutique hotels provide unique and personalized experiences, often with distinctive designs and attentive service.
  3. Historic Hotels:
    • Stay in historic hotels that have preserved their original architecture and charm, especially in cities with rich history like St. Petersburg.
  4. Business Hotels:
    • If you’re visiting for business purposes, business hotels often provide convenient amenities and locations.
  5. Budget Accommodations:
    • Hostels and budget hotels are available in major cities, offering cost-effective options for travelers.
  6. Apartment Rentals:
    • In some cities, you can rent apartments for a more local experience and additional space.
  7. Guesthouses and B&Bs:
    • Guesthouses and bed-and-breakfast accommodations can provide a more intimate and cozy stay.
  8. Traditional Inns:
    • In rural areas and smaller towns, you might find traditional inns that offer a glimpse into local culture.
  9. Resorts and Retreats:
    • If you’re exploring Russia’s natural landscapes, consider staying at resorts or lodges in areas like the Caucasus Mountains or Lake Baikal.
  10. Homestays:
    • In some regions, you can opt for homestays, where you stay with local families and experience their way of life.

When choosing accommodation, consider factors such as location, budget, amenities, and the type of experience you want to have. In major cities like Moscow and St. Petersburg, you’ll find a wide range of options to suit different preferences. It’s recommended to book accommodations in advance, especially during peak tourist seasons.

What to Eat? 🍽️

Russian cuisine offers a variety of hearty and flavorful dishes that reflect the country’s history and culture. Here are some must-try foods when visiting Russia as a tourist:

  1. Borscht (Борщ):
    • A famous beet soup that’s hearty and flavorful, often served with sour cream and rye bread.
  2. Pelmeni (Пельмени):
    • Dumplings filled with a mixture of meat (usually a combination of beef, pork, and sometimes lamb) and served with sour cream or butter.
  3. Blini (Блины):
    • Thin pancakes that can be enjoyed with sweet or savory fillings, such as caviar, smoked salmon, or jam.
  4. Olivier Salad (Салат Оливье):
    • A traditional Russian salad made with boiled potatoes, carrots, peas, eggs, pickles, and mayonnaise.
  5. Shashlik (Шашлык):
    • Marinated and grilled skewered meat (usually pork, chicken, or lamb) often served with vegetables and bread.
  6. Solyanka (Солянка):
    • A rich and hearty soup made with meat, sausages, pickles, and a mix of sour and spicy flavors.
  7. Herring Under a Fur Coat (Селедка под шубой):
    • A layered salad featuring herring, beets, potatoes, carrots, onions, and mayonnaise.
  8. Pirozhki (Пирожки):
    • Small baked or fried pastries filled with various ingredients, such as meat, potatoes, mushrooms, or cabbage.
  9. Caviar:
    • Sample Russia’s renowned caviar, usually served with blini, sour cream, and traditional accompaniments.
  10. Kholodets (Холодец):
    • A savory jelly made from boiled meat (usually pork or chicken) and served cold, often as an appetizer.
  11. Kvass (Квас):
    • A fermented drink made from bread, sugar, and yeast, offering a slightly tangy and refreshing taste.
  12. Medovik (Медовик):
    • A honey cake made with layers of thin, moist cake and sweetened condensed milk cream.
  13. Syrniki (Сырники):
    • Cottage cheese pancakes that are fried until golden and typically served with sour cream or jam.
  14. Pirog (Пирог):
    • A type of pie with various fillings, ranging from fruits and berries to cottage cheese or meat.
  15. Vareniki (Вареники):
    • Dumplings similar to pierogi, often filled with fruit, berries, cheese, or potatoes.

Exploring Russian cuisine offers a chance to savor traditional flavors and ingredients that have been passed down through generations. Whether you’re trying hearty soups or indulging in sweet treats, the diverse culinary landscape of Russia promises a delightful gastronomic experience.

What to See? 🔍

Russia boasts a wealth of historical, cultural, and natural attractions that capture the essence of this vast country. Here are some must-see places for tourists visiting Russia:

  1. Red Square and the Kremlin, Moscow:
    • Explore the heart of Moscow with iconic landmarks such as St. Basil’s Cathedral, the Kremlin, and Lenin’s Mausoleum.
  2. Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg:
    • Discover one of the world’s largest and most renowned art museums, housing a vast collection of art and artifacts.
  3. Peter and Paul Fortress, St. Petersburg:
    • Visit the historic fortress housing the Peter and Paul Cathedral, the final resting place of many Russian rulers.
  4. Catherine Palace and Amber Room, Pushkin:
    • Admire the opulent palace and the stunning reconstruction of the Amber Room, often referred to as the “Eighth Wonder of the World.”
  5. St. Isaac’s Cathedral, St. Petersburg:
    • Marvel at the impressive dome and interior of this grand cathedral, offering panoramic views from its observation deck.
  6. Trans-Siberian Railway:
    • Embark on an epic train journey across Russia, passing through diverse landscapes and connecting major cities.
  7. Lake Baikal:
    • Explore the world’s deepest and oldest freshwater lake, known for its clear waters and unique ecosystem.
  8. Suzdal and the Golden Ring:
    • Discover picturesque towns in the Golden Ring, a historic area northeast of Moscow, known for its well-preserved architecture.
  9. Kizhi Island:
    • Visit the UNESCO-listed wooden architecture ensemble on Lake Onega, including the iconic Church of the Transfiguration.
  10. Kazan:
    • Immerse yourself in the multicultural city of Kazan, known for its mix of Russian and Tatar cultures and the stunning Kazan Kremlin.
  11. Volga River Cruises:
    • Experience Russia from a different perspective with river cruises along the Volga River, passing through charming towns and landscapes.
  12. Sergiev Posad:
    • Explore the spiritual center of the Russian Orthodox Church at the Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius, a UNESCO-listed monastery complex.
  13. Valley of Geysers, Kamchatka:
    • Witness the natural spectacle of geysers erupting in the remote and stunning Kamchatka Peninsula.
  14. Bolshoi Theatre, Moscow:
    • Attend a performance at the renowned Bolshoi Theatre, a historic symbol of Russian ballet and opera.
  15. Mount Elbrus:
    • For adventure seekers, ascend Mount Elbrus, the highest peak in Europe, located in the Caucasus Mountains.

These attractions showcase Russia’s rich history, architectural marvels, natural beauty, and cultural heritage. Whether you’re drawn to the grandeur of cities like Moscow and St. Petersburg or eager to explore the remote corners of the country, Russia offers a diverse range of experiences for every traveler.

What to Do? 📸

When visiting Russia, there are numerous captivating activities and experiences that allow you to immerse yourself in the country’s culture, history, and natural beauty. Here are some must-do things for tourists in Russia:

  1. Take a Stroll on Red Square:
    • Explore Moscow’s iconic Red Square, home to historic landmarks like St. Basil’s Cathedral and the Kremlin.
  2. Marvel at the Hermitage Museum:
    • Spend time at the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, admiring its extensive art collection and opulent interiors.
  3. Experience the Bolshoi Ballet or Opera:
    • Attend a performance at the legendary Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow, a hub of Russian ballet and opera.
  4. Ride the Trans-Siberian Railway:
    • Embark on a life-changing journey along the Trans-Siberian Railway, crossing vast landscapes and connecting cultures.
  5. Witness the White Nights in St. Petersburg:
    • Visit St. Petersburg during the “White Nights” of summer, when the city enjoys extended daylight and hosts various cultural events.
  6. Explore the Catherine Palace and Amber Room:
    • Admire the exquisite Catherine Palace and the mesmerizing Amber Room, an artistic treasure in Pushkin.
  7. Cruise the Volga River:
    • Take a river cruise along the Volga River to explore charming towns, historical sites, and picturesque landscapes.
  8. Visit the Kremlin and Armoury Chamber:
    • Explore the Moscow Kremlin and the Armoury Chamber, home to a remarkable collection of Russian treasures.
  9. Discover the Golden Ring Towns:
    • Tour the ancient towns of the Golden Ring, known for their historical significance and well-preserved architecture.
  10. Experience a Russian Banya:
    • Embrace the Russian tradition of the banya (sauna) for a rejuvenating and culturally immersive experience.
  11. Savor Russian Cuisine:
    • Indulge in traditional Russian dishes like borscht, pelmeni, and blini, as well as local specialties in each region.
  12. Attend a Russian Orthodox Church Service:
    • Participate in a Russian Orthodox Church service to witness the spirituality and cultural heritage of the country.
  13. Explore the Winter Palace and Peterhof:
    • Visit the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg and the Peterhof Palace with its stunning fountains and gardens.
  14. Ride the Moscow Metro:
    • Experience the ornate and elaborate Moscow Metro, often referred to as an underground art museum.
  15. Discover the Arctic in Murmansk:
    • Venture to Murmansk to explore Russia’s Arctic region, witnessing the Northern Lights and experiencing unique Arctic activities.

These experiences provide a rich tapestry of Russia’s history, culture, and natural wonders. From grand palaces to immersive traditions, your journey through Russia will be filled with unforgettable moments and a deeper appreciation for this diverse country.

Culture and Safety 🦺

Understanding and respecting Russian culture is essential for a smooth and enjoyable trip. Here are some cultural aspects to keep in mind:

  1. Hospitality: Russians are known for their warm hospitality. Accept invitations to homes, and be prepared for generous offerings of food and drink.
  2. Greeting: Shake hands when meeting people, and maintain eye contact. Close friends and family often greet each other with kisses on both cheeks.
  3. Dress Modestly: While major cities like Moscow and St. Petersburg are more cosmopolitan, dressing modestly is generally appreciated, especially in religious sites.
  4. Gift Giving: If invited to someone’s home, bring a small gift as a token of appreciation. Flowers, chocolates, or a bottle of wine are common choices.
  5. Visiting Religious Sites: When visiting churches or monasteries, dress modestly and remove your hat. Taking photos inside may be prohibited.
  6. Language: While English is spoken in tourist areas, learning a few basic Russian phrases can be helpful and appreciated.
  7. Cyrillic Alphabet: Familiarize yourself with the Cyrillic alphabet to navigate signs and menus, especially in more remote areas.
  8. Smoking: Smoking is prohibited in most indoor public places, including restaurants and cafes.

Safety in Russia:

Russia is generally safe for tourists, but it’s important to exercise caution and be aware of your surroundings. Here are some safety tips:

  1. Scams and Pickpocketing: Beware of scams and pickpocketing, especially in crowded tourist areas. Keep your belongings secure and be cautious.
  2. Public Transport: Use reputable taxi services and avoid unmarked or unofficial taxis. The metro systems in major cities are generally safe.
  3. Personal Identification: Carry a copy of your passport and visa with you, but keep the original documents in a secure place like a hotel safe.
  4. Demonstrations: Avoid political demonstrations or protests, as they can sometimes turn confrontational.
  5. Emergency Services: The emergency number in Russia is 112 for police, medical assistance, and fire emergencies.
  6. Travel Insurance: Have comprehensive travel insurance that covers medical emergencies and unexpected situations.
  7. Photography: Always ask for permission before taking photos of people, especially in more conservative or sensitive areas.
  8. Alcohol Consumption: Be mindful of alcohol consumption and avoid excessive drinking, especially in unfamiliar places.

By respecting local customs, staying vigilant, and practicing common-sense safety measures, you can have a positive and enriching experience while traveling in Russia. Most Russians are welcoming and eager to share their culture and heritage with visitors.


In conclusion, a journey to Russia promises an extraordinary blend of history, culture, and captivating landscapes. From the grandeur of Moscow’s Red Square to the artistic treasures of St. Petersburg, and the enchanting experiences along the Trans-Siberian Railway, Russia offers a tapestry of diverse experiences. Navigating its rich traditions, indulging in hearty cuisine, and witnessing architectural marvels allows you to uncover the depth and beauty of this vast country. Amidst its complexities and charm, Russia invites you to immerse yourself in a world of contrasts and discover a land where past and present intertwine, leaving you with indelible memories of an unforgettable adventure.