Somalia Travel Guide – Everything You Need to Know

Tourism in Somalia is an emerging yet often overlooked sector, offering a blend of historical sites, pristine beaches, and unique cultural experiences. Despite the challenges the country has faced, Somalia boasts a rich heritage with ancient ruins such as the ancient port city of Zeila and the historic town of Mogadishu. The country’s picturesque coastline along the Indian Ocean showcases beautiful beaches and the potential for water-based activities. While security concerns persist, efforts are being made to revitalize and promote tourism, inviting intrepid travelers to explore Somalia’s hidden gems and contribute to its evolving narrative.

What’s the Best Time to Visit? 📅

Determining the best time to visit Somalia as a tourist involves considering factors such as weather conditions and safety. It’s important to note that travel to Somalia comes with significant challenges, including security concerns and a lack of established tourism infrastructure. Travelers should exercise caution and stay informed about the current situation.

That said, if one were to consider weather conditions, the most suitable time to visit Somalia would generally be during the dry season, which typically occurs from November to April. During this period, the weather is relatively stable, with lower chances of rainfall and more comfortable temperatures. This could be particularly advantageous for exploring historical sites, enjoying the coastline, and engaging in outdoor activities.

Before planning any travel to Somalia, it is crucial to stay updated on travel advisories, consult with local authorities, and ensure comprehensive safety measures. Additionally, check the latest information regarding the country’s security situation and travel restrictions. Travelers should consider consulting with official government travel advisories and seeking guidance from experienced travel agencies with expertise in the region.

What’s the Best Way to Get Around? 🚌

Traveling around Somalia as a tourist presents unique challenges due to security concerns and the lack of well-established tourist infrastructure. However, if you find yourself in the country and need to move within certain areas, here are some general considerations:

  1. Local Transportation:
    • In urban areas, you may find taxis and local buses as means of transportation. However, it’s essential to exercise caution and ensure that the transportation is reputable and safe.
  2. Domestic Flights:
    • For longer distances between major cities, domestic flights may be available. Check with local airlines for schedules and safety considerations.
  3. Private Transportation:
    • Arrange private transportation with trusted and reputable providers if necessary. This could include hiring a private car or using transportation services recommended by reliable sources.
  4. Security Escorts:
    • In certain areas, especially those with security concerns, it may be advisable to travel with security escorts or under the guidance of local authorities.
  5. Local Guidance:
    • Seek guidance from local residents, your accommodations, or local authorities regarding safe transportation options and the current security situation.
  6. Avoid Night Travel:
    • If possible, avoid traveling at night, as visibility may be limited, and security risks could be higher.

Always prioritize your safety and adhere to any travel advisories or restrictions in place. Due to the challenging security environment, it’s crucial to plan and coordinate your travel carefully, taking into account local advice and guidance. Additionally, stay informed about the latest security updates and be flexible with your plans based on the evolving situation. Traveling with a reputable local guide or a reliable travel agency with experience in the region can provide added safety and assistance.

What’s the Official Language?

The official languages of Somalia are Somali and Arabic. Somali is the most widely spoken language and serves as the official language used in government, education, and daily communication. Arabic is also used in certain contexts, particularly in religious and academic settings.

Here are a few basic Somali phrases that might be useful for tourists:

  1. Hello – As-salamu alaykum (السلام عليكم)
  2. Goodbye – Ma’a as-salama (مع السلامة)
  3. Thank you – Mahadsanid (مهادسنيد)
  4. Please – Fadlan (فضلًا)
  5. Yes – Haa (ها)
  6. No – Maya (مايا)
  7. Excuse me / Sorry – Waxaan ka xumahay (واكسان كا خوماهاي)
  8. How are you? – Sidee tahay? (سيدي تهاي؟)
  9. What is your name? – Maxaa magacaa? (ما هو اسمك؟)
  10. My name is… – Magacaygu waa… (مغاكايغو وا…)
  11. Good morning – Subax wanaagsan (صباح وناجسان)
  12. Good afternoon – Galab wanaagsan (غلاب وناجسان)
  13. Good evening – Fiid wanaagsan (فيد وناجسان)
  14. Good night – Habeen wanaagsan (هبين وناجسان)

Learning a few basic phrases in the local language can enhance your travel experience and foster positive interactions with the local population. Keep in mind that English is also understood in certain urban areas and may be used in tourist-related services.

Where to Stay? 🏨

Tourism infrastructure in Somalia is limited, and the security situation is challenging. Travelers considering a visit should exercise extreme caution and stay informed about the current conditions. The availability of accommodations is limited, and choices may vary depending on the specific location. Here are some general considerations:

  1. Mogadishu:
    • Mogadishu, the capital city, may have a few hotels that cater to international visitors. However, due to security concerns, it’s crucial to choose accommodations carefully, possibly consulting with local authorities or reputable sources for the latest safety information.
  2. Hargeisa:
    • Hargeisa, in the self-declared republic of Somaliland, may offer a slightly more stable environment. Some hotels and guesthouses may be available, but it’s essential to confirm their status and reliability.
  3. Local Guidance:
    • Seek guidance from local authorities, trusted contacts, or official travel advisories regarding safe accommodation options. Local advice can be invaluable in making informed choices.
  4. Secure Compounds:
    • Some international organizations and diplomatic missions may have secure compounds with accommodations. These facilities are often reserved for official personnel, but it’s worth exploring whether they offer any arrangements for tourists.
  5. Check Online Platforms:
    • Online travel platforms may provide information about available accommodations, but it’s critical to verify the current status and reviews. Keep in mind that the information available online may not always reflect the on-the-ground reality.
  6. Embassies and Consulates:
    • Check with your embassy or consulate for guidance on safe accommodations and any travel restrictions in place. They can provide valuable insights based on the latest information.
  7. Flexible Plans:
    • Given the fluid situation, it’s advisable to keep travel plans flexible. Be prepared to adjust your itinerary based on the evolving security conditions and local advice.

Before considering travel to Somalia, ensure that you have a thorough understanding of the security risks and adhere to any travel advisories or restrictions. Engaging with local authorities and obtaining up-to-date information is crucial for making informed decisions about accommodations and ensuring your safety during your stay.

What to Eat? 🍽️

Somali cuisine reflects the country’s rich cultural heritage and nomadic traditions. While tourism infrastructure is limited, if you find yourself in Somalia, here are some traditional dishes you might want to try:

  1. Hilib ari (Grilled Goat Meat):
    • A popular dish, hilib ari features marinated and grilled goat meat, often served with rice or flatbread. It is a staple in Somali cuisine and showcases the nomadic influence on food.
  2. Sambusa (Samosa):
    • Sambusas are savory pastries filled with spiced meat, vegetables, or lentils. They are a common snack and are often enjoyed during special occasions.
  3. Canjeero (Injera):
    • Canjeero is a type of flatbread that resembles Ethiopian injera. Made from fermented batter, it is a staple accompaniment to many Somali meals and is often served with stews.
  4. Bariis iskukaris (Spiced Rice):
    • Bariis iskukaris is a flavorful spiced rice dish, often prepared with aromatic spices, vegetables, and meat. It is a festive dish served on special occasions.
  5. Muqmad (Dried Meat):
    • Muqmad is a traditional Somali dish where meat, often camel or beef, is dried and then rehydrated before cooking. It is typically served with rice or bread.
  6. Maraq (Soup):
    • Maraq is a hearty and flavorful soup made with meat, vegetables, and spices. Variations may include goat meat, chicken, or fish, and it is often accompanied by bread or rice.
  7. Hilib geel (Camel Meat):
    • Camel meat is a significant part of Somali cuisine, and hilib geel refers to dishes made with camel meat. It can be prepared in various ways, such as grilled or stewed.
  8. Rooti iyo xalwo (Flatbread and Halva):
    • Rooti is a type of flatbread commonly consumed with tea, and xalwo is a sweet dessert made from sugar, butter, and sometimes nuts. It is a popular treat during celebrations.
  9. Laxoox (Somali Pancakes):
    • Laxoox are Somali pancakes made from a batter of flour, water, and a pinch of salt. They are thin and can be eaten with honey, butter, or stews.
  10. Mishkaki (Grilled Skewers):
    • Mishkaki consists of marinated and grilled skewers, often made with meat such as beef or chicken. It’s a popular street food and a flavorful option for those who enjoy grilled meats.

Remember that the availability of specific dishes may vary depending on the region and the local resources. Somali cuisine is diverse, and trying these traditional dishes can provide a flavorful introduction to the country’s culinary heritage.

What to See? 🔍

Tourism in Somalia is challenging due to security concerns, and travelers should exercise extreme caution. However, for those who might consider visiting certain areas under stable conditions, here are a few places that showcase Somalia’s rich cultural and historical heritage:

  1. Mogadishu:
    • The capital city, despite its challenges, has historical sites such as the Arba’a Rukun Mosque and the Mogadishu Cathedral. The Bakara Market provides a glimpse into daily life, and the Liido Beach offers a scenic retreat.
  2. Laas Geel Caves:
    • Located near Hargeisa in the self-declared Republic of Somaliland, the Laas Geel Caves house some of the world’s oldest known rock art, dating back thousands of years. The vibrant cave paintings depict scenes of daily life and wildlife.
  3. Berbera:
    • A coastal city in Somaliland, Berbera boasts beautiful beaches and historical sites, including the Ottoman-era old town and the Sheikh Yusuf Al Kowneyn’s tomb. The city provides a glimpse into Somalia’s maritime history.
  4. Zeila:
    • In the northern part of Somaliland, Zeila is a historical port city with well-preserved ancient structures such as the Fakr ad-Din Mosque and the Zeila Fort. The city has a rich history as a trading hub.
  5. Hargeisa:
    • The capital of the self-declared Republic of Somaliland, Hargeisa is known for its vibrant markets and cultural sites. The Independence Monument and the War Memorial are prominent landmarks.
  6. Puntland State of Somalia:
    • For those seeking adventure and cultural exploration, the semi-autonomous region of Puntland has unique landscapes and historical sites. Bosaso, the commercial hub, offers a glimpse into the region’s maritime activities.
  7. Jazeera Beach, Mogadishu:
    • Despite security concerns, Jazeera Beach in Mogadishu was once a popular destination for locals and visitors alike. Its white sandy beaches and turquoise waters make it a picturesque spot.
  8. Xamar Weyne Market, Mogadishu:
    • Xamar Weyne Market, also known as Black Market, is one of the largest markets in Mogadishu. It provides an insight into local commerce, and visitors can experience the hustle and bustle of daily life.

It is crucial to emphasize that travel to Somalia involves significant risks, and tourists should stay informed about the current security situation and adhere to travel advisories. Additionally, consult with local authorities, travel agencies with experience in the region, and embassies or consulates for the latest information and guidance.

What to Do? 📸

Traveling to Somalia as a tourist presents unique challenges, and the security situation should be a primary consideration. While tourism infrastructure is limited, and traditional tourist activities may not be readily available, here are some general suggestions for those considering a visit:

  1. Cultural Immersion:
    • Engage with local communities and immerse yourself in the rich Somali culture. Participate in traditional ceremonies, visit local markets, and interact respectfully with residents.
  2. Explore Historical Sites:
    • Visit historical sites such as the Laas Geel Caves near Hargeisa, which house ancient rock art, and explore the historical remnants in cities like Mogadishu and Zeila.
  3. Appreciate Local Cuisine:
    • Sample Somali cuisine, including dishes like hilib ari (grilled goat meat), sambusa (samosa), and bariis iskukaris (spiced rice). Local markets may offer an authentic taste of Somali flavors.
  4. Visit Coastal Areas:
    • If security conditions permit, explore the coastal areas such as Jazeera Beach in Mogadishu or Berbera in Somaliland. Enjoy the scenic beaches and witness the maritime history of the region.
  5. Experience Local Arts and Crafts:
    • Explore local arts and crafts, including traditional Somali textiles, jewelry, and handcrafted items. Support local artisans and learn about the cultural significance of their work.
  6. Attend Cultural Events:
    • If there are cultural events or festivals taking place, attend and witness traditional dances, music performances, and other cultural celebrations.
  7. Understand Nomadic Traditions:
    • Somalia has a rich nomadic heritage. If possible, gain insights into nomadic traditions, including herding practices and the importance of livestock in Somali culture.
  8. Visit Local Mosques:
    • Explore local mosques, which often serve as important cultural and community centers. The architecture and religious practices provide a window into Somali Islamic traditions.
  9. Photography Safely:
    • If photography is allowed and safe, capture the beauty of landscapes, historical sites, and cultural activities. Always respect local customs regarding photography and seek permission when necessary.
  10. Support Local Initiatives:
    • If there are community or conservation initiatives in place, consider supporting them. This could involve contributing to local projects or engaging in responsible tourism practices that benefit the community.

It’s crucial to approach travel to Somalia with caution, conduct thorough research, and stay informed about the current security situation. Consult with local authorities, embassies, or reputable travel agencies for guidance. Prioritize safety at all times and be prepared for a unique and potentially challenging travel experience.

Culture and Safety 🦺

Culture in Somalia:

  1. Hospitality and Respect:
    • Somali culture places a high value on hospitality. Visitors are often warmly welcomed, and it is customary to show respect to hosts and elders.
  2. Conservative Dress Code:
    • Dress modestly, especially in rural areas and when visiting religious sites. Women are advised to cover their shoulders and knees, and men should avoid walking around shirtless.
  3. Greetings:
    • Greetings are an essential part of Somali culture. Common greetings include “As-salamu alaykum” (Peace be upon you) to which the response is “Wa alaykum as-salam” (And upon you be peace).
  4. Social Hierarchies:
    • Somali society often has well-defined social hierarchies. Elders are highly respected, and it’s essential to show deference to them.
  5. Importance of Family:
    • Family plays a central role in Somali culture. The concept of extended family is significant, and familial ties are crucial in social interactions.
  6. Conservative Values:
    • Somalia is a predominantly Muslim country, and conservative Islamic values influence daily life. It’s essential to be respectful of religious customs and practices.

Safety in Somalia:

  1. Security Concerns:
    • Somalia has experienced political instability and security challenges. Travelers should stay informed about the current situation, adhere to travel advisories, and exercise extreme caution.
  2. Travel Restrictions:
    • Certain areas may have travel restrictions or advisories. Consult with local authorities, your embassy, or reputable travel agencies for the latest information and guidance.
  3. Avoid Crowded Places:
    • In urban areas, be cautious in crowded places, and stay informed about the security situation. Avoid demonstrations or large gatherings.
  4. Local Guidance:
    • Seek guidance from local authorities and your accommodations regarding safe areas, transportation, and activities. Local insights can be invaluable for navigating the current conditions.
  5. Avoid Night Travel:
    • Traveling at night may pose additional risks. It’s advisable to plan your activities during daylight hours and avoid unnecessary travel after dark.
  6. Stay Informed:
    • Regularly check for updates on the security situation. Follow news from reliable sources and be prepared to adjust your plans based on the evolving conditions.
  7. Secure Accommodations:
    • Choose accommodations carefully, considering security measures and recommendations from local authorities. Some accommodations may have security features in place.
  8. Emergency Contacts:
    • Save emergency contact numbers, including the local police, medical services, and your embassy or consulate. Be prepared with a plan for emergencies.
  9. Respect Local Customs:
    • Respect local customs and traditions. Being culturally sensitive can contribute to positive interactions and enhance your safety.
  10. Travel Insurance:
    • Ensure you have comprehensive travel insurance that covers potential risks, including medical emergencies and evacuation.

Before considering travel to Somalia, carefully assess the security risks and consult with official travel advisories, local authorities, and experienced travel agencies for guidance. Traveling to Somalia requires thorough preparation and adherence to safety measures at all times.


In conclusion, while Somalia possesses a rich cultural heritage and historical significance, it remains a destination fraught with security challenges. Tourists contemplating a visit must prioritize safety, staying well-informed about the current situation, and adhering to travel advisories. Cultural experiences, warm hospitality, and unique landscapes exist but are intertwined with complex geopolitical realities. Travel to Somalia demands careful consideration, thorough planning, and a commitment to respectful engagement with local communities. Given the dynamic nature of the region, potential visitors should approach the prospect with caution, flexibility, and a deep understanding of the risks involved.