Sudan Travel Guide – Everything You Need to Know

Sudan, a country nestled in the northeastern region of Africa, is a captivating destination for travelers seeking to explore the rich tapestry of its history, culture, and natural beauty. With its diverse landscapes, ancient archaeological sites, and warm hospitality, Sudan offers a unique and authentic tourism experience.

From the bustling markets of Khartoum, where vibrant colors and exotic spices fill the air, to the serene shores of the Red Sea, where pristine beaches and world-class diving await, Sudan’s attractions are as diverse as its people. History enthusiasts will be enthralled by the ancient pyramids of Meroe, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, while those seeking adventure can embark on thrilling desert safaris to encounter nomadic tribes and awe-inspiring desert landscapes.

Sudan’s tourism is a journey into the heart of Africa’s past and a celebration of its present, with a promise of warm welcomes, delicious cuisine, and unforgettable experiences for all who venture to explore this hidden gem. Come discover the secrets of Sudan and be captivated by its timeless allure.

What’s the Best Time to Visit? 📅

The best time to visit Sudan as a tourist largely depends on your preferences and the type of experience you seek, as Sudan experiences varying weather conditions throughout the year. Here’s a breakdown of the seasons:

  1. Winter (November to February): This is the peak tourist season in Sudan. The weather is pleasantly cool and dry, making it an ideal time for sightseeing and outdoor activities. Daytime temperatures in most parts of the country are comfortable, but nights can be chilly, especially in the desert regions.
  2. Spring (March to May): Spring is another good time to visit Sudan. The weather remains mild, and the landscape is lush and green, particularly in the southern regions. This is a great time for cultural and historical exploration.
  3. Summer (June to August): The summer months are very hot and dry, with scorching temperatures that can reach well above 100°F (38°C) in many parts of Sudan. This is not the best time for tourism, especially if you’re not accustomed to extreme heat.
  4. Autumn (September to October): Autumn is a transitional period when temperatures start to cool down, making it a suitable time for visiting Sudan, especially if you want to avoid the extreme heat of summer. The landscape is still relatively green from the previous rainy season.

To maximize your comfort and enjoyment, it’s generally recommended to visit Sudan during the winter or spring months when the weather is more pleasant for outdoor activities and exploration. However, it’s essential to be mindful of the ongoing political and safety conditions in the country and to check for any travel advisories or updates before planning your trip. Additionally, consider the specific regions you want to visit, as weather conditions can vary across Sudan.

What’s the Best Way to Get Around? 🚌

Getting around Sudan as a tourist can be an adventure in itself, as the country’s transportation infrastructure is still developing. Here are some of the best ways to get around Sudan:

  1. Domestic Flights: For long-distance travel between major cities like Khartoum, Port Sudan, and other regional hubs, domestic flights are a convenient option. Several airlines operate domestic routes, and flying can save you time, especially if you’re covering vast distances.
  2. Buses and Minibuses: Buses and minibuses are the primary mode of transportation for many Sudanese. They connect towns and cities, making them an affordable option for tourists. However, be prepared for potentially crowded and uncomfortable conditions. It’s advisable to book bus tickets in advance, and consider traveling during daylight hours for safety reasons.
  3. Trains: Sudan has a limited but expanding railway network. Trains are a scenic way to travel between some cities and offer a unique experience. The trains might not be as modern or comfortable as those in more developed countries, but they provide a cultural insight into Sudanese life.
  4. Taxis and Rickshaws: In urban areas like Khartoum, taxis are readily available and can be an efficient way to navigate the city. Negotiate the fare before starting your journey, as meters are not commonly used. Auto-rickshaws, known as “jitneys” or “tok-toks,” are also a common sight in many cities.
  5. Private Drivers: Hiring a private driver or guide can be a convenient way to explore specific regions or tourist attractions. This option provides flexibility and local knowledge, but it can be more expensive.
  6. Walking and Cycling: In cities and towns, walking and cycling can be enjoyable ways to explore the surroundings. Be mindful of local customs and dress modestly when walking in conservative areas.
  7. Boats: If you plan to visit coastal areas like Port Sudan or explore the Nile, boats and ferries can be used for transportation and scenic tours.

It’s essential to plan your itinerary and transportation options in advance, as some routes may have limited schedules or availability. Additionally, be aware of safety concerns and any travel advisories, especially in remote or border areas. Sudan’s transportation infrastructure is evolving, so flexibility and a sense of adventure are valuable traits for travelers exploring this less-traveled destination.

What’s the Official Language?

The official language of Sudan is Arabic. Arabic is the language used for government, administration, and education. However, Sudan is a linguistically diverse country, and several other languages are also spoken by various ethnic groups. English is often used as a second language, especially in urban areas and within the tourism industry.

Here are some basic Arabic phrases and words that can be useful for tourists in Sudan:

  1. Hello: مرحباً (Marhaban)
  2. Good morning: صباح الخير (Sabah al-khair)
  3. Good evening: مساء الخير (Masa’ al-khair)
  4. Please: من فضلك (Min fadlik)
  5. Thank you: شكراً (Shukran)
  6. Yes: نعم (Na’am)
  7. No: لا (La)
  8. Excuse me / I’m sorry: عذراً (A’dhiran)
  9. How much is this? كم سعر هذا؟ (Kam si’ru hadha?)
  10. Where is…? أين…؟ (Ayna…?)
  11. Food: طعام (Ta’am)
  12. Water: ماء (Ma’)
  13. Bathroom / Toilet: حمام (Hammam)
  14. I need help: أحتاج مساعدة (Ahtaj musa’ada)
  15. I don’t understand: لا أفهم (La afham)

Remember that while Arabic is the official language, English is often understood in tourist areas and major cities, so you can use English if you’re unsure about your Arabic pronunciation or if you encounter someone who speaks English. Sudanese people are generally welcoming and appreciate tourists making an effort to communicate in their language. Learning a few basic Arabic phrases can enhance your travel experience and help you connect with the local culture.

Where to Stay? 🏨

Finding accommodation in Sudan can vary in terms of options and quality, but there are choices available for tourists, especially in major cities like Khartoum and Port Sudan. Here are some recommended places to stay:

  1. Hotels: In Khartoum and Port Sudan, you can find a range of hotels, from budget to luxury. Some international hotel chains operate in these cities, offering comfortable and reliable accommodation options. These hotels often have amenities such as restaurants, bars, and swimming pools.
  2. Guesthouses: Guesthouses or small inns are a more budget-friendly option and are commonly found in various cities and towns. They provide a more intimate and local experience. Keep in mind that the quality and facilities can vary widely, so it’s a good idea to check reviews and book in advance if possible.
  3. Hostels: While hostels are not as common in Sudan as in some other countries, there are a few budget-friendly hostels available, primarily in Khartoum. These can be an excellent choice for backpackers and travelers on a tight budget.
  4. Camping: If you’re an adventurous traveler and planning to explore remote areas or go on desert safaris, camping might be your best option. Be prepared with your camping gear and check local regulations and safety guidelines before camping in specific areas.
  5. Nile River Cruises: If you’re interested in exploring the Nile River, consider booking a Nile cruise. These cruises offer a unique way to experience the country and its culture while enjoying comfortable accommodation and meals onboard.
  6. Eco-Lodges: Some eco-lodges and eco-friendly accommodations are emerging in Sudan, especially in ecologically significant regions like the Red Sea coast and wildlife reserves. These provide sustainable and immersive experiences in nature.

When booking accommodation in Sudan, it’s a good idea to plan ahead, especially during the peak tourist season, and consider factors like location, amenities, and safety. Additionally, be aware of the local customs and regulations, and always check for any travel advisories or updates before your trip.

What to Eat? 🍽️

Sudanese cuisine offers a unique blend of flavors influenced by its diverse cultures and regions. While in Sudan as a tourist, you should definitely try some of the following must-try dishes and foods:

  1. Ful Medames: This is a staple Sudanese breakfast dish made from mashed fava beans cooked with spices like garlic, cumin, and lemon juice. It’s often served with bread or flatbread.
  2. Kisra: Kisra is a traditional Sudanese flatbread made from fermented sorghum. It’s a common accompaniment to various dishes and is known for its slightly sour taste.
  3. Mulahwaja: This is a rich and hearty stew made with lamb, beef, or chicken, cooked with vegetables, spices, and ground peanuts. It’s usually served with bread or rice.
  4. Bamia: Bamia is okra stew, a flavorful dish made with tender okra pods, meat (usually lamb or beef), and a tomato-based sauce seasoned with spices. It’s often served with rice.
  5. Aseeda: Aseeda is a traditional Sudanese porridge made from sorghum or millet flour. It’s typically served with a meat or vegetable stew and is an essential part of Sudanese cuisine.
  6. Shawarma: While not originally Sudanese, shawarma is a popular street food in Sudan. It consists of sliced, marinated meat (usually beef or chicken) wrapped in flatbread and often served with garlic sauce and vegetables.
  7. Kabab: Sudanese kababs are skewers of grilled or roasted meat, usually seasoned with spices and served with bread or rice. They’re a favorite among meat lovers.
  8. Hibiscus Tea (Karkade): Sudanese people enjoy hibiscus tea, known as “karkade.” It’s a refreshing and tart drink made from dried hibiscus flowers, often sweetened with sugar.
  9. Sudanese Sweets: Sudan offers a variety of sweet treats, such as sesame seed bars (gozinaki), peanut brittle (fambara), and honey-soaked pastries. These make for delightful snacks or desserts.
  10. Fruits: Sudan is known for its delicious, fresh fruits. Try the local mangoes, papayas, guavas, and watermelons when they’re in season for a sweet and refreshing experience.
  11. Street Food: Don’t miss the opportunity to explore Sudanese street food stalls, where you can sample items like falafel, fried doughnuts (lokma), and roasted nuts.

When trying Sudanese cuisine, keep in mind that the level of spice and heat can vary, so be sure to ask about the spiciness of a dish if you’re sensitive to it. Sudanese food is often enjoyed communally, and sharing a meal with locals can be a great way to immerse yourself in the culture and hospitality of the country.

What to See? 🔍

Sudan is a country with a rich history, diverse landscapes, and cultural heritage. While there are many places to explore, here are some must-see destinations for tourists in Sudan:

  1. The Pyramids of Meroe: Located in the desert near the Nile, the Pyramids of Meroe are one of Sudan’s most iconic and impressive archaeological sites. These ancient pyramids, dating back to the Kingdom of Kush, are less crowded than Egypt’s pyramids, allowing for a more intimate experience.
  2. Khartoum: Sudan’s capital city, Khartoum, is a vibrant and bustling metropolis. Explore its markets, visit the National Museum to see archaeological treasures, and take in the views at the confluence of the Blue and White Nile rivers.
  3. Port Sudan: This coastal city on the Red Sea is a gateway to some of Sudan’s best diving spots and beautiful beaches. It’s an ideal destination for water sports and marine life enthusiasts.
  4. Nubian Desert: The Nubian Desert offers a unique desert landscape to explore. Consider taking a desert safari or camel trek to experience the vast dunes and nomadic communities.
  5. Suakin: Suakin is an ancient port town on the Red Sea coast. It boasts historical coral buildings and provides insight into Sudan’s maritime history.
  6. El Kurru Archaeological Site: This site features ancient Nubian pyramids and rock-cut tombs, showcasing the cultural heritage of the Kingdom of Kush.
  7. Taka Mountains: Located in eastern Sudan, the Taka Mountains offer hiking and trekking opportunities, with picturesque landscapes and lush wadis (valleys).
  8. Mogran Family Park: Located in Khartoum, this park is a great place for families to relax and enjoy picnics. It’s also home to a small zoo and a playground.
  9. The Red Sea Coast: Besides Port Sudan, Sudan’s Red Sea coast offers pristine beaches, coral reefs, and excellent diving and snorkeling opportunities. Don’t miss exploring the underwater world here.
  10. Sanganeb Marine National Park: This protected area in the Red Sea is renowned for its marine biodiversity. It’s a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a fantastic spot for diving and observing marine life.
  11. Wadi Halfa: Situated on the border with Egypt, Wadi Halfa is a town that offers a glimpse into the local culture and a base for exploring nearby attractions like the Temple of Soleb.
  12. Al-Bajrawiya (Old Dongola): This historical site features the remains of a Christian Nubian kingdom, including ancient churches and fortifications.

Before visiting these destinations, it’s essential to check the latest travel advisories and local conditions, as Sudan’s situation can change. Additionally, consider hiring a local guide for a richer understanding of the history and culture of the places you visit.

What to Do? 📸

As a tourist in Sudan, there are several must-do activities and experiences that will help you make the most of your visit and immerse yourself in the country’s culture and natural beauty. Here are some top things to do in Sudan:

  1. Explore Ancient Pyramids: Visit the Pyramids of Meroe and El Kurru to witness Sudan’s rich archaeological heritage. These well-preserved pyramids date back to the Kingdom of Kush and offer a fascinating glimpse into the past.
  2. Cruise the Nile: Take a Nile cruise, particularly between Khartoum and northern Sudan, to appreciate the river’s significance and see the changing landscapes along its banks.
  3. Dive and Snorkel: Explore the underwater world of the Red Sea by diving or snorkeling in places like Port Sudan, Sanganeb Marine National Park, and the pristine coral reefs along the coast.
  4. Visit Local Markets: Stroll through bustling markets like Souq Arabi in Khartoum or local markets in smaller towns to experience the vibrant culture, shop for traditional crafts, and savor Sudanese street food.
  5. Savor Sudanese Cuisine: Taste Sudanese dishes such as ful medames, kisra, mulahwaja, and bamia to sample the country’s unique flavors and culinary traditions.
  6. Engage with Locals: Strike up conversations with Sudanese locals to learn about their culture, traditions, and way of life. Sudanese people are known for their hospitality and warmth.
  7. Attend Cultural Festivals: If your visit coincides with local festivals or events, such as the Sufi ceremonies in Omdurman or cultural festivals in various regions, don’t miss the opportunity to participate and witness traditional celebrations.
  8. Visit Historical Sites: Explore historical sites like Suakin, the Temple of Soleb, and ancient rock-cut tombs to gain insights into Sudan’s rich history and architecture.
  9. Take a Desert Safari: Experience the stunning landscapes of the Nubian Desert and the Sahara by embarking on a desert safari or camel trek. Witness breathtaking sand dunes, oases, and nomadic communities.
  10. Hike and Trek: Explore the Taka Mountains or other scenic regions for hiking and trekking adventures, offering opportunities to enjoy Sudan’s natural beauty and wildlife.
  11. Photograph the Scenery: Sudan boasts diverse and picturesque landscapes, from deserts to lush Nile valleys. Be sure to capture the breathtaking scenery with your camera.
  12. Learn About Nubian Culture: Engage in Nubian cultural experiences, including music, dance, and traditions, by visiting Nubian villages or attending cultural performances.
  13. Enjoy Stargazing: The desert areas of Sudan provide an excellent opportunity for stargazing due to the clear, unpolluted skies. Consider camping under the stars for a memorable experience.
  14. Respect Local Customs: Sudan is a predominantly Muslim country with conservative customs. Dress modestly and respect local traditions and etiquette.
  15. Stay Informed: Stay updated on travel advisories, local regulations, and safety guidelines throughout your trip to ensure a smooth and safe experience.

By immersing yourself in these activities and experiences, you’ll have the opportunity to discover the beauty, history, and unique culture of Sudan while creating lasting memories.

Culture and Safety 🦺

Traveling to Sudan as a tourist offers a chance to experience a rich and diverse culture, but it’s essential to be mindful of local customs and safety considerations. Here are some cultural and safety tips for travelers to Sudan:

Cultural Tips:

  1. Respect Islamic Customs: Sudan is predominantly Muslim, and Islamic customs are an integral part of daily life. Dress modestly, particularly in public places, by covering your shoulders, chest, and knees. Women should cover their hair with a scarf when entering mosques or conservative areas.
  2. Greetings: Greet people with respect and use polite Arabic phrases, such as “As-salamu alaykum” (peace be upon you) as a common greeting. Respond with “Wa alaykum as-salam” (and peace be upon you).
  3. Right Hand Rule: In Sudan, as in many other Muslim-majority countries, the right hand is considered cleaner and more appropriate for eating, shaking hands, and giving or receiving items. The left hand is often used for personal hygiene.
  4. Ramadan: If you visit during Ramadan, be aware that it’s a month of fasting from sunrise to sunset. Avoid eating, drinking, or smoking in public during daylight hours out of respect for those observing the fast.
  5. Photography: Always ask for permission before taking photos of people, particularly in rural areas. Some Sudanese may not feel comfortable being photographed.
  6. Friday Prayer: On Fridays, many businesses and services may close during the midday Friday prayer time. Plan your activities accordingly.

Safety Tips:

  1. Travel Advisories: Check your government’s travel advisories and the latest safety information for Sudan before your trip. Conditions can change, so stay informed.
  2. Register with Your Embassy: Register your presence with your embassy or consulate when you arrive in Sudan. This can be helpful in case of emergencies or unforeseen situations.
  3. Security in Darfur and Border Regions: Be cautious when traveling to border areas and regions like Darfur, which have experienced conflicts and security issues. Check travel advisories for specific recommendations.
  4. Civil Unrest: Sudan has experienced periods of civil unrest and protests. Avoid large gatherings and demonstrations, and stay informed about local news and developments.
  5. Health Precautions: Ensure your vaccinations are up-to-date, and take necessary precautions against diseases like malaria. Drink bottled water and be cautious about the quality of food in local markets.
  6. Currency and Payments: Carry enough cash in Sudanese pounds (SDG), as credit cards and ATMs may not be widely accepted. Be cautious when handling money, and use reputable exchange services.
  7. Transportation Safety: Be vigilant when using public transportation, as road conditions can vary. Choose reputable transportation providers for long-distance travel.
  8. Local Laws and Regulations: Familiarize yourself with Sudan’s laws and regulations. Drug use, for example, is strictly prohibited and can result in severe penalties.
  9. Emergency Contacts: Know the local emergency contact numbers and the location of the nearest embassy or consulate.

By respecting local customs and following safety guidelines, you can enhance your travel experience in Sudan while staying safe and culturally sensitive. Sudanese people are known for their hospitality, and your efforts to understand and respect their culture will likely be appreciated.


In conclusion, a visit to Sudan promises a unique and rewarding experience for adventurous travelers. From its ancient historical sites to its vibrant markets, pristine beaches, and warm-hearted people, Sudan offers a tapestry of culture, natural beauty, and rich history waiting to be explored. While it may not be the most conventional tourist destination, Sudan’s hidden gems and warm hospitality make it a truly unforgettable place for those willing to venture off the beaten path. So, pack your bags, embrace the adventure, and embark on a journey to discover the wonders of Sudan.